Three Os – explained

Open to the World

  • Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable development; global societal challenges; UN sustainable development goals (SDGs); effective global governance, global security and the eradication of poverty and hunger;
  • international scientific cooperation
  • Science diplomacy
    • Diplomacy for Science promotes international scientific collaboration, using the classic tools of diplomacy to support the scientific and technological community.
    • Science in Diplomacy occurs when scientists provide input or advice to foreign policy and decisionmaking, including global governance.
    • Science for Diplomacy uses science as a tool to build and improve relations between nations, whether to address shared problems or to mitigate tensions.
  • Many of the challenges that we face at home and across the globe require active and effective international collaboration and the harnessing of state-of-the art science.
  • To be Open to the World requires insistence on open economies and open societies so as to strengthen human capital and preserve natural capital. In an interdependent, rapidly changing world new threats and new challenges constantly emerge, but also new opportunities.
  • engagement with partners across the globe.
  • Mutual understanding scientists, public, policymakers
    • For such ambitions to be achieved does, however, require a ‘social contract’ between the scientific communities and the policy communities. Dialogue needs to be closer and scientists need to acknowledge their responsibilities for contributing to public understanding, just as policy-makers need to engage more closely with the scientific communities.


Open Innovation (2.0)

  • Chesbrough (2006): “the use of purposive inflows and outflows of knowledge to accelerate internal innovation, and expand the markets for external use of innovation, respectively.”
  • Chesbrough and Bogers (2014): Open innovation as a distributed innovation process based on purposively managed knowledge flows across organizational boundaries, using pecuniary and nonpecuniary mechanisms in line with the organization’s business model.
    • As mentioned above, the knowledge flows can be “imported” into the focal firm via internal processes applied to external knowledge, “exported” from the focal firm via external commercialization processes, or even “coupled”.
  • Open Innovation 2.0 by the EC (2016):
    • discussing the central role that users play in both value creation (as in distributed innovation or crowdsourcing, e.g., Afuah & Tucci, 2012) and as the target of innovation in and of itself (“user-centric”).
    • Open Innovation 2.0 also includes a well-functioning “ecosystem” or business ecosystem, where stakeholders or members of the ecosystem collaborate “along and across industry and sector-specific value chains to co-create solutions to socio-economic and business challenges” (European Commission, 2016: 13, see Figure 2).


Open Science

Four major goals:

  1. Public accessibility and full transparency of scientific communication;
  2. Public availability and reusability of scientific data;
  3. Transparency in experimental methodology, observation, and collection of data;
  4. Complete scientific collaboration.

Four essential needs:

  1. Strengthen dialogue between science and society;
  2. Linking scientists to science policy making;
  3. Developing proper e-infrastructures, digital tools and services for OS;
  4. Changing legal tools and policy requirements for open science.

Solid foundations & values of OS

  1. Preparing skilled people for openness;
  2. Demanding a responsible conduct to researchers, intrinsic to the values of research and the trust it engenders: Research Integrity.


(Source: Rise group report, 2017)

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